We remind the underpinnings of classical encryption, factorization and elliptical curves, and their relation to discrete logarithms. After very briefly sketching the key resources of quantum computing, Shor’s algorithm is revealed to solve the discrete logarithm problem. Thus, quantum computing is jeopardizing today’s cryptographic infrastructure. Lattice-based cryptography is introduced, and a brief overview on Dilithium and Kyber is given. These two algorithms are believed to be quantum safe, i.e. they promise to resist attacks by quantum (as well as classical) algorithms. While Dilithium and Kyber are already being standardized, a broad awareness of the above security threads is lacking in industry. However, a couple of major industry players are quite active, which we sketch at the end of the talk.

Frank Leymann is a full professor of computer science at University of Stuttgart, Germany. His research interests include software architecture, highly-distributed applications, middleware, pattern languages, and quantum computing. Frank is co-author of nearly 600 peer-reviewed papers, more than 70 patents, and several industry standards. He is elected member of the Academia Europaea, fellow of several organizations, and Kurt Goedel visiting professor for quantum computing at TU Vienna.