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Publisher: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group
ISBN: 978-0-8058-6280-5 June 2009

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Edited by
Constantine Stephanidis
Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas

Gavriel Salvendy, Series Editor

In recent years, the field of Universal Access has made significant progress towards consolidating theoretical approaches, scientific methods and technologies, as well as exploring new application domains. Universal Access refers to the conscious and systematic effort to proactively apply principles, methods and tools of universal design, in order to develop Information Society Technologies which are accessible and usable by all citizens, including the very young and the elderly, as well as people with different types of disabilities, thus avoiding the need for a posteriori adaptations or specialized design. The requirement for Universal Access emerged in the early ‘90s from the growing impact of the fusion of the emerging technologies, and from the different dimensions of diversity, which are intrinsic to the emergence of the Information Society. These dimensions become evident when, for example, considering the broad range of user characteristics, the changing nature of human activities, the variety of contexts of use, the increasing availability and diversification of information and knowledge sources and services, and the proliferation of technological platforms. Since then, the scope of investigation in the field of Universal Access has broadened, more systematic investigations of users, contexts and technology diversity in the Information Society have been carried out, new methodological approaches have been elaborated, existing approaches have been embedded in the development of support tools, a wide variety of novel interaction techniques have emerged for supporting users diversity, and a plethora of applications and case studies putting to practice all the above have become available. Additionally, awareness and policy have also progressed to the point that now accessibility to the basic technological infrastructure is recognized by many as a fundamental human right.

The "Universal Access Handbook" reflects all these recent developments in an effort to consolidate present knowledge in the field of Universal Access and open new perspectives for the future. It is a collection of 61 Chapters, structured into nine parts, written by leading international authorities, affiliated to academic, research and industrial organizations.

This Handbook provides a structured guide to professionals and practitioners working in the field, a comprehensive and interrelated collection of reference articles for academics and researchers, an indispensable source of information for interdisciplinary and cross-thematic study, an important educational tool in an increasingly globalized research and development environment, and a base line for further in-depth studies in the subject matter in the future.

Table of Contents

C. Stephanidis

Part I: Introduction to Universal Access

  • Universal Access and Design for All in the Evolving Information Society
    C. Stephanidis
  • Perspectives on Accessibility: From Assistive Technologies to Universal Access and Design for All
    Pier Luigi Emiliani
  • Accessible and Usable Design of Information and Communication Technologies
    Gregg C. Vanderheiden

Part II: Diversity in the User Population

  • Dimensions of User Diversity
    Mahima Ashok and Julie A. Jacko
  • Motor Impairments and Universal Access
    Simeon Keates
  • Sensory Impairments
    Erin Kinzel and Julie A. Jacko
  • Cognitive Disabilities
    Clayton Lewis
  • Age-Related Differences in the Interface Design Process
    Sri Kurniawan

Part III: Technologies for Diverse Contexts of Use

  • International and Intercultural User Interfaces
    Aaron Marcus and Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
  • Accessing the Web
    Vicki L. Hanson, John T. Richards, Simon Harper, and Shari Trewin
  • Handheld Devices and Mobile Phones
    Anne Kaikkonen, Eija Kaasinen, and Pekka Ketola
  • Virtual Reality
    Darin Hughes, Eileen Smith, Randall Shumaker, and Charles Hughes
  • Biometrics and Universal Access
    Michael C. Fairhurst
  • Interface Agents: Potential Benefits and Challenges for Universal Access
    Elisabeth Andre and Matthias Rehm

Part IV: Development Lifecycle of User Interfaces

  • User Requirements Elicitation for Universal Access
    Margherita Antona, Stavroula Ntoa, Ilia Adami, and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Unified Design for User Interface Adaptation
    Anthony Savidis and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Designing for Universally Accessible Games
    Dimitris Grammenos, Anthony Savidis, and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Software Requirements for Inclusive User Interfaces
    Anthony Savidis and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Tools for Inclusive Design
    Sam Waller and P. John Clarkson
  • The Evaluation of Accessibility, Usability, and User Experience
    Helen Petrie and Nigel Bevan

Part V: User Interface Development: Architectures, Components, and Tools

  • A Unified Software Architecture for User Interface Adaptation
    Anthony Savidis and Constantine Stephanidis
  • A Decision-Making Specification Language for User Interface Adaptation
    Anthony Savidis and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Methods and Tools for the Development of Unified Web-Based User Interfaces
    Constantina Doulgeraki, Nikolaos Partarakis, Alexandros Mourouzis, and Constantine Stephanidis
  • User Modeling: A Universal Access Perspective
    Ray Adams
  • Model-Based Tools: A User-Centered Design for All Approach
    Christian Stary
  • Markup Languages in HCI
    Fabio Paterno and Carmen Santoro
  • Abstract Interaction Objects in User Interface Programming Languages
    Anthony Savidis

Part VI: Interaction Techniques and Devices

  • Screen Readers
    Chieko Asakawa and Barbara Leporini
  • Virtual Mouse and Keyboards for Text Entry
    Grigori Evreinov
  • Speech Input to Support Universal Access
    Jinjuan Feng and Andrew Sears
  • Natural Language and Dialogue Interfaces
    Kristiina Jokinen
  • Auditory Interfaces and Sonification
    Michael A. Nees and Bruce N. Walker
  • Haptic Interaction
    Gunnar Jansson and Roope Raisamo
  • Vision-Based Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Interaction
    Xenophon Zabulis, Harris Baltzakis, and Antonis Argyros
  • Automatic Hierarchical Scanning for Windows Applications
    Stavroula Ntoa, Anthony Savidis, and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Eye Tracking
    Paivi Majaranta, Richard Bates, and Michael Donegan
  • Brain-Body Interfaces
    Paul Gnanayutham and Jennifer George
  • Sign Language in the Interface: Access for Deaf Signers
    Matt Huenerfauth and Vicki L. Hanson
  • Visible Language for Global Mobile Communication: A Case Study of a Design Project in Progress
    Aaron Marcus
  • Contributions of "Ambient" Multimodality to Universal Access
    Noelle Carbonell

Part VII: Application Domains

  • Vocal Interfaces in Supporting and Enhancing Accessibility in Digital Libraries
    Tiziana Catarci, Stephen Kimani, Yael Dubinsky, and Silvia Gabrielli
  • Theories and Methods for Studying Online Communities for People with Disabilities and Older People
    Ulrike Pfeil and Panayiotis Zaphiris
  • Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
    Tom Gross and Mirko Fetter
  • Developing Inclusive e-Training
    Anthony Savidis and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Training through Entertainment for Learning Difficulties
    Anthony Savidis, Dimitris Grammenos, and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Universal Access to Multimedia Documents
    Helen Petrie, Gerhard Weber, and Thorsten Volkel
  • Interpersonal Communication
    Annalu Waller
  • Universal Access in Public Terminals: Information Kiosks and ATMs
    Georgios Kouroupetroglou
  • Intelligent Mobility and Transportation for All
    Evangelos Bekiaris, Maria Panou, Evangelia Gaitanidou, Alexandros Mourouzis, and Brigitte Ringbauer
  • Electronic Educational Books for Blind Students
    Dimitris Grammenos, Anthony Savidis, Yannis Georgalis, Themistoklis Bourdenas, and Constantine Stephanidis
  • Mathematics and Accessibility: A Survey
    Enrico Pontelli, Arthur I. Karshmer, and Gopal Gupta
  • Cybertherapy, Cyberpsychology, and the Use of Virtual Reality in Mental Health
    Patrice Renaud, Stephane Bouchard, Sylvain Chartier, and Marie-Pierre Bonin

Part VIII: Non Technological Issue

  • Policy and Legislation as a Framework of Accessibility
    Erkki Kemppainen, John D. Kemp, and Hajime Yamada
  • Standards and Guidelines
    Gregg C. Vanderheiden
  • eAccessibility Standardization
    Jan Engelen
  • Management of Design for All
    Christian Bühler
  • Security and Privacy for Universal Access
    Mark T. Maybury
  • Best Practice in Design for All
    Klaus Miesenberger

PART IX: Looking to the Future

  • Implicit Interaction
    Alois Ferscha
  • Ambient Intelligence
    Norbert A. Streitz and Gilles Privat
  • Emerging Challenges
    Constantine Stephanidis
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